Rabu, 21 Desember 2011

Cassava Business - Prosperity For All

The vision for cassava is that cassava will spur rural industrial development and raise incomes for producers, processors and traders. Cassava will contribute to the food security status of its producing and consuming households.

A raison d'ĂȘtre for developing a global cassava marketing strategy is the belief that it will contribute to the economic development of processing communities and well-being of numerous disadvantaged individuals in the world. It is suggested that a necessary condition for the implementation of this strategy is the existence of a growing demand for cassava.

To achieve this vision the Global Cassava Strategy is proposed. The essence of the Global Cassava Strategy is to use a demand-driven approach to promote and develop cassava-based industries with the assistance of a coalition of groups and individuals interested in developing the cassava industry.
The strategy consists of identifying, in a systematic manner, the opportunities and constraints of cassava at each stage of the commodity development cycle. This can be done by groups and individuals interested in developing the cassava industry; producers, processors and consumers of cassava, as well as associated national, international and non-governmental organizations. Concepts of business development and management as well as international economic cooperation are important tools in implementing the strategy. Scientific support is also essential to help overcome important problems within the production-processing-marketing continuum. Adaptive research is essential to ensure that existing and evolving knowledge is harnessed in an appropriate and useful fashion. The overall aim is to achieve demand-driven technical change and economic growth.

The Global Cassava Strategy suggests the utilization of "industry analysis". Industry analysis consists of identifying, in a systematic manner, the opportunities and constraints at each stage of the supply chain. Industry analysis involves stakeholders in a participatory effort to identify strengths, weaknesses and opportunities. Industry analysis is a demand-driven approach to technical change through:
  1. Explicitly considering stakeholders as equal partners in determining the needs and future plans for a dynamic cassava industry;
  2. Building a practical, shared vision for cassava development;
  3. Helping make action plans for the industry, including the who, what, why, and how, plus the question, with whose money?
  4. Building better linkages with private sector organizations;
  5. Better links with and among public-sector institutions;
  6. Co-stewardship of research and service outputs with users;
  7. Rapid introduction of high-impact technologies through public and private sector partnerships.
The initiation of this Strategy will require catalysts capable of identifying marketing opportunities, and bringing these to the attention of stakeholders, and champions, capable of providing support and resources for the growth and development of cassava markets. Even if the stakeholders agree that there is a growth market for cassava, there may still be need for research and development, provision of infrastructure and investments, and changes in policies to grasp the new opportunity.

A necessary and perhaps first step in the development of a market-driven global cassava strategy is the identification of markets that are growing or could potentially grow. A second step is the provision of a consistent supply of a relatively uniform product. A third step, related to step two, is to provide the market with a competitively priced product that meets the consumers' requirements. A fourth step is to secure the cooperation of those associated with the market opportunity.

The development path for cassava will be product-, location- and time-specific. Nevertheless, it would appear that if the market growth potential exists because of a structural change in the economy (e.g. decreasing number of farmers and increasing number of urban consumers of cassava products, resulting in market growth) one would expect that NGOs and national governments would be in the best position to act as champions and catalysts. If, on the other hand, the market growth exists because cassava is price competitive then both national and international agencies may act as champions and catalysts. Finally, in the case where cassava has a unique advantage the catalyst or champion may not be a national or international agency, but instead be an industry or corporation that has proprietary interest in cassava.

The global strategy should be seen as comprising both bottom-up and top-down approaches. The global strategy is an amalgamation of national, regional and continental strategies and plans, augmented by global efforts to identify and stimulate markets. The national efforts will be the action-sites for implementing the global strategy. The global effort assists with financing, changing policies that constrain markets.

National strategies should evolve from a process of industry analysis. In this process, the relevance of roots and tubers, especially cassava, as a possible entry point in developing a national strategy should be explored. In particular, special reference should be given to the role of the cassava production-processing-marketing continuum in specific ecological zones or socio-geographic communities, from the viewpoint of food security or income generation and economic diversification.

Regional strategies should be developed where farming systems, environmental conditions, and processing and utilization of cassava are similar. Regional strategies should be supportive of and supported by regional entities such as ASARECA in East and Central Africa, SACCAR in Southern Africa, or CORAF in West Africa that are actively involved in agricultural development of root crops. These regional entities could act as champions or catalysts for cassava. The continental strategy expands on national and regional strategies. The continental strategy highlights the needs and support that transcend national and regional concerns.

The Global Strategy seeks global support to help implement the strategy. Development banks and institutions such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, Inter-american Development Bank and African Development Bank may play a vital role. The Global Strategy provides assistance to cassava-growing nations that are developing and supporting national strategies. The Global Strategy should assist with the development of a global forum for the pursuit of cassava market opportunities, identification of source of capital, and promotion of a strong base of research support for global genetic resource and enhancement studies, including biotechnology.

A Case Study : INDONESIA
An analysis for one cluster of Mocaf agroindustry development.
Minimum size of one cluster : 300 hectares
One Farm Family manages minimum land : 2,5 hectares
The cassava high yeilding varity be grown by farmer who joint the Cluster : Darul Hidayah or Manggu, with the productivity about 100 ton/hectare of fresh cassava with the manurity is 10 months. Every month the farmer grows 0,25 hectares due to the maturity of cassava to be grown ( Darul Hidayah or Manggu varieties ) is 10 months. Thus the farmer can harvest his cassava every month for 0.25 hectares for 10 months duration of one period of cassava farming.

If the Darulhidayah or Manggu variety grown by farmer can produce 100 ton fresh cassava per hectare, then for 0.25 hectare every month the farmer can harvest about 25 ton of fresh cassava. That mean the farmer can produse cassava every month about 25 ton of fresh cassava.
For one Cluster of 300 hectares will be managed by 120 farmers and they will be grouped into 6 groups or 20 farmers for each group of farmers.

All fresh cassava produced by all farmers in the Cluster should be processed into Cassava Chips or Dried Cassava, even it can be further processed by farmers as a group into Cassava Powder or Modified Cassava Flour ( Mocaf ) or Starch/Tapioca. Farmers who joint the Cluster , will never sale fresh cassava, but only sale processed cassava to the factory or customers. Even in the very near future, those farmers , member of Cluster of Cassava Agroindustry will never sale any fresh cassava any more.

In general the cost of production for produsing 30 tons of Cassava Chips per hectare ( from 100 ton fresh cassava per hectare, ) about IDR 25 million or equivalence to USD 2.8 thousands/hectar, including the cost of slicer and dryer. Thus the cost of 0.25 hectar/month for producing 7,5 ton of cassava chips is USD 700 . If the price of 1 ton cassava chip is IDR 2,000,000 or USD 222/ton chips. Then the revenu of farmer by selling 7.5 ton of chips totaly USD 1,665/month. Therefore the income of farmer for a month become USD 1,665 – USD 700 = USD 965/month ( from 0.25 hectare of land ) or equivalent to IDR 8.7 million/month. This is relatively high income for the farmer in general compared to those of other crop’s farmer including rice farmer. This is the income for the farmer, during the month of 11th up to the 20th. At the month of 20th all loans of farmer to the Bank or to the money lender is completly paid.

Starting at the month of the 21 st. every farmer will have higher income due to less in expences in producing the same amount of chips, 7.5 tons/month. The farmer will have saving in from seeds, fertilizer, and the processing equipment (slicer and dryer). It was calculated the farmer’s income starting the month of 21st and beyond will be around Rp 16 million/month or equivalence to USD 1,800/month.

All participant farmers in the cluster, 120 farmers, work together to produce Chips every month and send it to the factory of Mocaf. That every month the Mocaf Factory received around 120 X 7.5 tons of Chips = 900 ton Chips/month and sell to Indofood. The factory make profit about IDR 300,000/Ton or equivalent to USD 33/ton. Thus every month the Factory can earned frofit : 900 ton x USD 33 = USD 29,700/month.The Cassava Business in ASEAN Region through the Agroindustry Clustering Model Development will become one of choice by farmers and businessmen, because this model can give benefit to all cassava stakeholders, including Farmers or we can said that Cassava : Prosperiry for All.

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