Minggu, 18 Desember 2011

The Cassava Business in ASEAN - Cassava Trading


Cassava exports rise on ASEAN demand
Demand from Thailand and Vietnam helped to drive up the Kingdom’s cassava exports 88 percent in the first three months of 2011, compared to the same period last year, according to Camcontrol, a division of the Commerce Ministry.
Cassava exports between January and March totalled 204,618, up 87.7 percent from 108,987 tonnes in 2010. Higher prices also helped to boost export revenues for Cambodia. Revenues for the period equalled US$9.9 million, or about a 143 percent increase from last year’s $4.1 million.

Khuon Savuth, director of Camcontrol, tied the rise to demand from the Kingdom’s larger neighbors and said the increasing prices are pushing more and more farmers to plant cassava. “The high price of cassava not only improves the living standard of people but also upholds the national economy.” Chhorn Saroem, President of Chey Chamroeun Company, which exports agricultural products to Thailand, said the increased farming boosted her cassava shipments in the first three months of the year 50 percent higher than the same period last year. “This year the farmers throughout Pailin province flock to cultivate more cassava than other crops because of high price,” she said.

She added that a tonne fetched 370,000 riels this year compared to 110,000 riel last year. Khiev Sophet of Pailin, who typically grows corn, said he emphasised cassava this season because of its higher price. He said, even with the increased farming of the crop, “I believe the price should hold for next year.”

According to data from Camcontrol, Cambodia’s cassava exports in 2010 totalled just 165,229 tonnes worth $12 million. Global cassava production in 2009 is forecast at 242 million tonnes, 4 percent above the record of the previous year. The high price episode of 2007/2008 for traded food staples reminded policy-makers in many vulnerable countries, as well as the international community, to look toward indigenous crops as an alternative source to potentially expensive and volatile cereals. Among these crops, cassava has been at the forefront. As a 'crisis crop', cassava roots require few inputs, can be left in the ground for well over one year and harvested when food shortages arise or when prices of preferred cereals become prohibitive. These attributes are behind an anticipated expansion of output in Africa, of about 3 percent, to some 121.5 million tonnes in 2009.


Table 1. World cassava production


2006

2007

2008*

2009**

WORLD

224 483

217 536

233 391

242 069

Africa

117 449

104 952

118 461

121 469

Nigeria

45 721

34 410

42 770

45 000

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

14 989

15 004

15 020

15 036

Ghana

9 638

9 650

9 700

10 000

Angola

8 810

8 800

8 900

9 000

Mozambique

6 765

5 039

8 400

9 200

Tanzania, United Rep.of

6 158

6 600

6 700

6 500

Uganda

4 926

4 456

4 942

4 500

Malawi

2 832

3 239

3 700

4 000

Madagascar

2 359

2 400

2 405

2 000

Other Africa

15 251

15 354

15 923

16 233

Latin America

36 311

36 429

37 024

36 606

Brazil

26 639

26 541

26 600

26 000

Paraguay

4 800

5 100

5 300

5 400

Colombia

1 363

1 288

1 444

1 500

Other (Latin America)

3 509

3 500

3 680

3 706

Asia

70 465

75 882

77 631

83 715

Thailand

22 584

26 411

25 156

30 088

Indonesia

19 987

19 988

20 269

20 500

Viet Nam

7 783

7 985

8 300

8 600

India

7 620

8 429

8 959

9 200

China, mainland

7 500

7 875

8 300

8 700

Cambodia

2 182

2 215

3 604

3 275

Philippines

1 757

1 871

1 941

2 200

Other Asia

1 053

1 108

1 102

1 151

Oceania

258

272

275

280



While promising ethanol prospects are behind record cassava crops in Indonesia and Viet Nam, (the region's other principal producing countries), falling cotton and coffee returns in those countries have also prompted more farmers to switch to cassava cultivation.

Officials in Viet Nam put the 2009 harvest at around 8.6 million tonnes. In less than one decade, cassava output in the country has more than quadrupled, reflecting a strategy to gear the sector towards predominantly supplying the international market. However, future progress is likely to be moderated by policy measures to limit the cassava area to no more than 400 000 ha. In the Philippines, public-private sector efforts to develop competitive domestic animal feed and ethanol industries through the commercialization of cassava could pave the way for a record cassava output of well over 2 million tonnes.

The country has earmarked a doubling of the cassava area by 2014 from current levels. Smaller cassava producing countries in the region, such as Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic have also attracted foreign direct investment from mainland China and the Republic of Korea to expand their cassava energy feedstock and starch production, through land lease initiatives and capital outlays towards processing. This initiative contributed to a surge in cassava plantings in Cambodia in 2008 by around 60 percent giving rise to an official production record of 3.6 million tonnes. Prospects for 2009, however, have been marred by adverse weather conditions, which could see production fall by 10 percent.
Global cassava trade set to recover in 2009, but increasingly confined to regional and cross-border transactions
After experiencing a near 15 percent contraction in 2008, world trade in cassava products in the current year is expected to rise by 32 percent to a record 12.5 million tonnes (chip and pellet weight equivalent).

Table 2. World exports of cassava (product weight equivalent)

TOTAL

2006

2007

2008

2009



Flour and starch

4 852

4 686

4 265

4 651

Thailand

4 616

4 416

3 963

4 316

Others

236

269

302

335






Chips and pellets

5 629

6 506

5 187

7 802

Viet Nam

1 041

1 317

2 000

4 000

Thailand

4 348

4 824

2 848

3 450

Indonesia

132

210

170

160

Others

108

156

169

191



This forecast is based on the improved competitiveness of cassava starch relative to grain based products, combined with soaring international demand for cassava as a feedstock for ethanol production, which have resulted in a stronger pace of cassava shipments to date by Thailand, by far the world's largest international supplier. Overall, the country is anticipated to ship around 7.8 million tonnes of cassava chips, pellets and starch in 2009, up by 14 percent in volume from the previous year. But the arrival of Viet Nam on the arena to fulfil rising industrial requirements in Southeast Asia represents the main reason behind the prospect of record trade in the year.

China (mainland) looks set to consolidate its position as the most important buyer on the global stage, accounting for over 70 percent of all inflows in 2009.

Table 3 : Thai Trade in Cassava


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

TOTAL

6 240

8 964

9 240

6 810

7 766

Flour and starch total

3 212

4 616

4 416

3 963

4 316

Japan

622

694

729

873

725

China

525

723

694

611

1 125

Chinese province of Taiwan

502

676

548

483

620

Indonesia

348

968

667

417

270

Malaysia

229

312

256

296

400

Others

986

1 244

1 523

1 284

1 176

Chips and pellets total

3 028

4 348

4 824

2 848

3 450

China

2 766

3 963

3 168

1 214

3 000

Republic of Korea

265

268

20

474

111

European Union

246

341

1 436

989

20

Others

-249

-224

200

170

319


Source: TTTA, FAO

Trade in Chips and pellets
The composition of cassava trade has undergone major changes. Trade in pellets (mainly for animal feed), once the bedrock of international cassava demand, has collapsed. In 2009, the share of pellets in the total volume of trade amounted to just over 2 percent, compared with over 84 percent at the beginning of the decade. Asian countries, especially China and the Republic of Korea, have taken over the European Union as the major destination for cassava feed ingredients, and look set to import around 275 000 tonnes in 2009. Concerns about a permanent retreat of the European Union from the import market are resurfacing again. Despite some activity in 2008, the European Union purchased just 17 000 tonnes in 2009 so far and is unlikely to engage in any major purchase in the foreseeable future. Increased availability of cheap feedstuffs in Member States has minimized demand for cassava, to close to disappearance.

Global trade in chips is again expected to be centred in Asia, with China established as the world's leading importer, principally to meet capacity of the burgeoning cassava-based ethanol sector. Indeed, demand for chips by the country is set to underpin aggregate cassava trade in 2009 and imports of the feedstock could rise by as much as 50 percent from the previous year, to 7.7 million tonnes. In the past, Thailand has met this demand, but in the current year, Viet Nam is likely to emerge as the chief supplier, with around 4 million tonnes of cassava chip exports, around double the level of last year. As members of the ASEAN community, imports to China from both Thailand and Viet Nam attract zero duty, which, by boosting the competitiveness of cassava, has constituted an important driver for the expansion of the regional market.

As for cassava starch and flour, world trade is expected to rebound, but not to the same degree foreseen in the global chips market. Thailand is expected to dominate international shipments, with China again anticipated to be the leading starch buyer, reflecting the policy-induced price advantage that cassava based starch has maintained over grain products in that market. The Chinese Province of Taiwan has engaged in significant international purchases during the course of the year, following the liberalization of alternative markets for maize starch.

Experiences of Small Cassava Farmers in Bukidnon, a presentation by Ms. Agnes BolaƱos, Executive Director, Agri-Aqua Coalition for Development- Mindanao during the 3rd LSFM RTW, related about the case of Balugo farmers’ Multi-purpose Cooperative in supplying cassava chips and by-products to San Miguel Corporation, one of the biggest food and beverage processing company in the Philippines.



Enhanced by Zemanta

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar