Sabtu, 17 Desember 2011


By: Mr. Suharyo Husen
Chairman, Indonesian Cassava Society (ICS)

Cassava grow in all countries in ASEAN Region. Most people in rural areas, farmers and non farmers are very familier with cassava. Many rural people very depending on cassava. Their live, school of their children are supported by cassava.

OFFICIAL NAME : Sultanate of Brunei
CAPITAL : Bandar Seri Begawan
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT : Absolute Monarchy
AREA : 5,765 Sq Km (2,226 Sq Mi)

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Brunei is located on the northwest coast of the island of Borneo in South East Asia. It is bound by the South China Sea to the north and the Malaysian state of Sarawak to the west and south. The country is divided into two separate enclaves by Sarawak with the main part to the west containing the Brunei-Muara, Tutong and Belait districts while the east contains the Temburong district. The terrain in the western enclave consists of hilly lowlands and the eastern enclave contains a wide coastal plain that rises to the mountain regions of Sarawak. Equatorial rain forests which are very dense in some places cover 75% of the land area and mangrove swamps as well as sandy beaches lie along the coastal plains. Major Cities (pop. est.); Bandar Seri Begawan 46,000, Kuala Belait 21,200, Seria 21,000, Tutong 13,000 (1991). Land Use; forested 86%, pastures 1%, agricultural-cultivated 1%, other 12% (1993).

ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $4,001,000,000 (1993). Public Debt; nil. Imports; BD $2,280,700,000 (1992). Exports; BD $3,630,200,000 (1992). Tourism Receipts; USD $35,000,000 (1990). Balance of Trade; BD $1,946,000,000 (1992). Economically Active Population; 111,955 or 43.0% of total population (1991). Unemployed; 4.7% (1991).
MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are Japan, Thailand, Singapore, South Korea and other ASEAN countries.
MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Bananas, Cassava, Coffee, Fish, Oil and Natural Gas, Rice, Timber.

Kompong Cham Province
Cassava is a plant originally coming from South Africa. From there it was spreading to various tropical and sub-tropical regions. Cassava is a crop that can be processed into many other products such as ethanol, animal feed or cassava starch/flour for human consumption.

Cassava, cultivated as a family-business, can be found mostly in the districts of Memot, Tambeir and Tbaung Khmom in Kampong Cham Province. Production: Cultivated area is 62,300 ha, yields amount approximately to 1,006,816 tons/year. Markets: Local processing companies and export to Vietnam as a dry chip.

In Indonesia, cassava is classified officially as a food crops, so its development should be under the respondibility of Ministry of Agriculture. Almost all cassava roots and their derivative products ( e.g. chips, pellets, starch, food, feed and chemicals ) are traded or processed in other sectors, outside the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture. As trading and/or processing activities affect the cassava grower, directly or inderectly, any attempt to resolve cassava production problems by only focusing on its cultural practices will fail.A holistic view and approach through integrating all related parties concerned( cassava growers, traders, processors, and consumers) as a continuum is unavoidable.

Cassava is grown mainly by small farmers who use labor-intensive methods. Due to its wide adaptability, cassava can be grown over a wide range of soil and climatic conditions as well as levels of management. However, most areas allocated to cassava are uplands, characterized by marginal soil fertility, with sloping or undulating topography, underdeveloped infrastructure ( especially transportation ), and a number of other relatively unfavorable circumstances.

Most cassava in Indonesia is produced by small farmers that are weak in resources endowment , either in economic or social terms. Little purchased inputs, especially chemical or inorganic fertilizers, are applied, and as a result cassava production is frequently blamed as the cause of soil degredation. The crops is mostly grown in upland areas with undulating topography. Since its planting time should be compatible with the distribution of rainfall, the flexibility in planting and harvesting time is limited. As a consequence, the existence of a peak in planting and harvesting time is difficult to avoid. Abundance of cassava roots during the peak harvesting time results in low prices.

From an individual farmer’s point of view, his income is determined by his productivity level. Logically, any improvement in productivity should increase farmer’s income. However, this rarely happens, because the price is governed by total amount of roots produced . As price fluctation is the result of supply and demand imbalance, any decrease in price can be perceived as an indicator of limited demand. There is a belief that cassava farmers, especially the low income groups, are trapped in a vicious cycle : changes in yield-planted area production, are countered by changes in prices which go up and down. This condition in turn prevents farmers from improving their income.

If the opinionthat demand is the most important limiting factor for production growth is true, the best solution should be a demand led-strategy. Demand for cassava in Indonesia is mainly in the areas of food., industry ( mainly processing of starchand starch-based products), export and feed. Future prospects for using cassava as food will depend mainly on : (1) rice availability, since rice is the most preferred staple food for Indonbesian people; and (2) cassava product development activities , as the social bias against cassava as being a food for the poor is strong and real. The existence of starch processing and starch –based industries, especially on a large scale, have been present for some time., but their role in improving farmers’ wefare should be questioned. The growth in cassava exports will face two barriers: first, strong competition from Thailand, and secondly, the domestic price. Demand for cassava as a raw material for production of feed depend on its price in relation to that of maize.

It can be concluded that from the growers view point cassava is a cash crop rather than a subsitence crop, and therefore the crop is a source of income rather than a source of food. As a consequence, every effort to improve the crop’s performance should strife to ensure an increase in the grower’s welfare. In addition, there has no be a significant increase in net income for individual farmers, due to correct balance between production and demand. In fact, economic and social issues are the principal constraints. Unfortunately, these two issues are beyond the farmer’s control.Concerted effortsamong farmers, government and non-government organizations, research and development agencies, and others are urgently needed. While technical expertise should continously be improved, much is known already to help increase the present productivity level towards its full yield potential.

In Malaysia, the processing of sago starch predates that of cassava, having been established before 1416. With its introduction, cassava, which is a much shorter term crop, quickly replaced sago palm as the preferred raw material among starch processors. Hence, except for a small amount serving the fresh food market, cassava is planted in Malaysia mainly for starch processing. The cassava area in Peninsular Malaysia has declined steadily to 1,631 ha in 1997 after peaking in 1976 at 20,913 ha. This decline is due to the curbing of illegal cultivation; land alienation policy with a bias against cassava; switching from cassava to more lucrative crops; rising costs of production; low prevailing price for cassava roots; and competition for land for agricultural and non-agricultural activities during the economic boom prior to July 1997. Of the eight starch factories reported in Perak in 1984, only two are still in operation. Recently, in Sabah, a starch factory opened to process roots supplied through contract farming from an area of more than 3,000 ha. In trade, cassava starch takes the form of flour, flakes, pearls and starch powder. There is a growing demand for starch with imports amounting to 88,210 tonnes in 1997.

Most of this starch is used in food industries, particularly for making monosodium glutamate (using about 3,000 tonnes of starch per month). Other significant users are manufacturers of glucose, bakery and biscuit products, textiles and paper. There is also increasing interest in growing edible varieties of cassava for processing into snacks.

The future potential in terms of domestic demand for cassava starch is very good. Since the onset of the economic downturn faced by Southeast Asia, the Malaysian government has actively encouraged agriculture (to offset the country's huge food import bill amounting to almost US$ 2.9 billion a year) by providing easier access to farmland. There is recent renewed enthusiasm for planting cassava for production of starch, dried chips for livestock feed and sweeteners (high fructose glucose syrup or HFGS). For large-scale mechanized cassava production, certain prerequisites of soil type, terrain, climate and farm size matching the factory's capacity, must be satisfied. While land is hard to come by in Peninsular Malaysia, more than 80,000 ha of land are still available in Sabah.

Starch is the most likely product to be feasible and profitable in the immediate future compared to dried chips and HFGS production, because of a high demand in the local market, and a well-established technology for starch processing. Stable, high-yielding varieties with intermediate to high starch content to ensure higher starch recovery are required; better still if they can be harvested early.

The potential of using cassava as a carbohydrate-rich animal feedstuff is promising, but being low in protein compared to maize, additional protein is required from another source, entailing extra costs. Also, it is costly to dry cassava by artificial means. Although it is technically possible to produce HFGS from cassava, it involves converting starch by enzymatic processes – a complicated and expensive procedure. This does not seem economically feasible in the immediate future, given the current low world price for sugar. Instead, modified starches and their products have very good future potential as profitable agro-based industries. Modification of starches not only expands their scope of utilization by altering their physico-chemical characteristics, but also increases their value as compared to native starch.

An alternative use of cassava, which has some prospects, is the production of snack foods. Although oil-fried crisps and crackers are traditional snacks produced by cottage industries, only recently have attempts been made by larger food processors to improve their quality and packaging, and to target the more up-market urban consumer and overseas market. Preliminary work at MARDI has shown that cassava makes a very good raw material for extruded snacks.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae.) is a perennial shrub native to South America that is now grown throughout the tropics. Other common names for cassava are tapioca, mandioca, manios, sagu, yuca. In the Philippines, it is commonly called as kamoteng kahoy or balinghoy. It is a major source of calories for some 300 million people in the developing countries of the world. It is one of the world's most efficient converters of solar energy to carbohydrates.

Cassava is grown both as a single crop, and in combination with sorghum, maize, groundnuts, cowpeas, yams, sweet potatoes , upland rice and certain other vegetables. Plant only high varieties and according to needs. For starch, VC-1, VC-2, VC-3, Datu, Lakan or Golden Yellow can be used. For food, or feeds, use only Lakan or Golden Yellow varieties.

Select only fresh, mature or healthy stems. The planting materials are considered fresh if the latex or sap comes out within six (6) seconds after cutting and mature if the diameter of the pith or cork is not more than half the diameter of the cortex. It is considered healthy if it is pest-free and the diameter of the stem is not loess than 1.5 cm.

Obtain stalks from a healthy stand which is at least eight (8) months old. Rouge out other varieties that are mixed with the recommended varieties if any. Use a saw or bolo to prepare cuttings at 20-30cm long. Keep the stalks for not more than five days, under shade in upright position. Handle carefully and do not throw cuttings to avoid damage to the nodes. Do not use cuttings stored for more than 5 days.

Traditionally an agrarian economy with rice as its main product, the country's agricultural sector has since expanded to cope with the demands of its newly industrialized state. Thai agriculture has a clear advantage over other newly industrializing economies, namely the large portion of land allocated for cultivation, a climate suited to the growth of a wide variety of crops, and high quality strains of agricultural products.

Cassava production is anticipated to record strong growth in Asia, much on account of Thailand, where, according to officials, a 20 percent rise in production is foreseen in 2009, exceeding 30 million tonnes for the first time. The international market for Thai cassava products has traditionally been the main growth driver for the country's crop, but concerns over subdued demand abroad prompted the Government to intercede heavily in the sector, through reinstating its usual price insurance and intervention purchase scheme, as well as granting preferential credit to farmers.

However, the fiscal strain of supporting the agricultural sector has led the Government to launch in November an 'agricultural options programme', in place of the price pledging or insurance scheme. The programme seeks to remove some of the distortionary effects of price supports and will encourage quality over quantity. It will also minimize a longstanding problem of cross-border subsidization of agricultural production, whereby roots from neighbouring countries have been able to benefit from minimum prices. Against the backdrop of falling domestic root prices during the planting period, these incentives (or at least the expectations of continued strong support) were largely behind the record cassava area in 2009, but expectations of robust demand for the crop as a feedstock for ethanol in domestic and neighbouring distilleries have also played a role.

In the News: Pest and disease crippled Cassava production in SE Asia
International Center for Tropical Agriculture CIAT scientists and their partners in Southeast Asia have issued urgent preliminary guidelines to tackle deadly pest and disease outbreaks that have crippled cassava production in parts of the region.

The move follows a CIAT investigation into reports from Thailand’s eastern and northeastern regions, of damaged and stunted cassava plants with low root yields. Cassava is an essential pro-poor crop in the region, where it is grown by around 5 million smallholders, mainly to supply the starch processing and animal feed industries. In Thailand alone, the industry is worth US$1.5 billion, and the country accounts for three-quarters of the world’s cassava exports.

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